What are subtle fluids?
Jean Baptist Lamarck believed that all bodies had’ subtle fluid’. These were weightless fluids pervading all space and bodies. Two good examples of eighteenth- century subtle fluids were electricity and heat. Lamarck believed the subtle fluids were responsible for both movement and change. For example, Lamarck pointed out that snails have poor vision because the feelers on their heads acted as their eyes.
According to him, the ancestors of snails did not have feelers. They group about with their heads to find their way around. This grouping sent subtle fluids to the front of the head, and the constant presences of moving subtle fluids eventually brought about the development of feelers, and these feelers were passed from generation to generation.
Why did early scientists not accept the idea of extinct animals?
Early scientists were, at first, reluctant to accept the idea that same animals had become extinct. According to the Bible, even when a great flood covered the Earth, Noha had managed to save a male and female of all species to ensure that no animal would become extinct.
When the first fossils of unknown animals were discovered, it was believed that these animals still existed in some unexplored region of the Earth. However the discovery of fossils of giant animals like the mastodon shook this belief, as it was unlikely that there were unexplored region large enough to hide such animals. French scientists were the first to the accepted that these giant animals might have roamed the Earth thousand of year ago, and become extinct due to a variety of because. Slowly, this idea come to be accepted worldwide.
Why is Charles Willson peale an important figure in the history of evolution?
Charles Willson peale founded a museum in phiadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1786. It contained a collection of natural history specimens, portraits of admirable historical figures, and human artefacts from various countries. His purpose was to show the place of human beings as part of the animal kingdom.
His most famous display, however, was the mastodon skeleton he obtained in 1801. Measuring 3.35 meters high at the shoulder, and 4.5 meters from china to rump , It was huge and strange and confusing. Was it a man or beast, an elephant, or some unknown animal? The fossils have been discovered in swampy ground, and had been excavated with great difficulty. Man or beast, this monstrous creature’, as it was called, would soon become celebrated as the unknown species or the ‘incongnitum’.
Why are Georges Cuvier’s theories important ?
For many years , scientists refuse to accept that animals had become extinct. When remain were found that were unlike anything living at the time, they argued that they were unusual examples of life creature, or that animals known only from fossils must still survive in some explored part the world. It was only at the end of the 18th century that the great French paleontologist and Georges Cuvier was able to demonstrate convincingly that extinctions were real.
Cuvier was convinced that plants and animals of all types were
created for their particular role and places in the world’s environment, and that they were unchanging throughout their existence. According to him, catastrophic events in the course of history had killed off all members of some species, and their fossils would no longer be seen in the rocks. Subsequently, he believed, the old species were replaced by new ones that repopulated Earth.
Cuvier had an almost untenability to reconstructions from only fragment of fossil remains. With elegant studies of the anatomy of large mammals such as elephants, Cuvier showed that fossils mammoths differed from any such creatures presently living. His many examples of fossils telling the stories of animals that lived and then disappeared, were taken as incontrovertible proof of extinctions.
Why are Hugh miller and Louis Agassiz famous?
Hugh miller was a 19th century geologist. He put forward the theory that there had been several successive creation, and that each had been destroyed by a catastrophe. According to him, the Bible dealt with only the last creation. Miller explained the presence of fossils as being the remains of animals from an earlier creation.
Louis Agassiz was a professor of zoology and Geology. He did landmark work on glacier activity and extinct fishes. He encouraged learning through direct observation of nature. Agassiz put forward the of a new catastrophe the lce Age. He believed that a sudden intense ice Age gripped the Earth for ages, and wiped out all the existing animals and plants. His concept of the Great ice Age brought him much fame, as he was able to present evidence in the field, especially the scratched surfaces of bedrock where rocks in the moving ice had gouged out deep marks.
Why was the first dinosaur fossils discovered?
Dinosaur fossils were probably discovered by the ancient Chinese, Romans, and Greeks. However, no one really recognized them as belonging to an extinct animal. Much later in 1676, a huge thigh bone name as found in England by Reverend plot. It was thought that the bone belonged to a ‘giant’ but was probably from a dinosaur.
The first dinosaur to be described scientifically was Megalosaurus, named in 1824, by William Buckland. The name ‘dinosaur’ which means ‘terrible lizard’, was actually coined by Richard Owen. In1838, William parker foulke found the first nearly complete dinosaur fossils remains in new Jersey, USA. Since Buckland’s original discovered in 1819, approximately 330 different dinosaur genera have been discovered thus for.
IN the 1800’s a young English girl, Mary Anning of lyme regis, England, discovered the fossils remains of some strange and very ancient marine animals. In time, the fossils she found recived their modern names of ichthyologists. The world Ichthyosaurs, means ‘first lizard’, and fossils of these creatures prove that they were dinosaurs that lived in the sea. The first scientist to describe ichthyosaurs Dr. William Buckland professor of geology at Oxford.
Why is the world ‘evolution’ associated with Charles Darwin?
When you think of evolution, the first name that comes to one’s mind is that of Charles Drawin. However the fact is that he was not the first person to put forward the of evolution . Lamarck had suggested it earlier, but the concept was not popular. In fact, a zoology professor, Robert Grant, lost his job because he supported Lamarck’ theory! An anonymous work titled ‘The Vestiges of Creation,’ was ridiculed. It was Charles Darwin who first made the theory acceptable, and he was able to do so because he supported it with a huge amount o evidence. Darwin an English natural ist, put forward his theory in a book titled ‘On the Origin of the Species’. He established that the different species evolved through a process he called natural selection. Darwin’s theory gained acceptance because it was able to explain the diversity of life.